Tribal Women &Ndash; Empowerment Through Non Governmental Organization


The tribal population is an integral part of India’s social fabric and has the second largest concentration after that of the African continent. The population of tribal communities scheduled in the Constitution of India and known as Scheduled Tribes was 8.43 crores as per 2001 census and accounts for 8.2% of the total population. 4.26 crores are man and 4.17 crores are women, accounting for 8.01% and 8.40% respectively. The need for empowerment of tribal’s hardly needs justification. Their primitive way of life, economic and social backwardness, low level of literacy, outdated system of production, and demographic quality of tribal areas make the development of tribal’s and tribal areas essential.

Introduction
The tribal population is an integral part of India’s social fabric and has the second largest concentration after that of the African continent. The population of tribal communities scheduled in the Constitution of India and known as Scheduled Tribes was 8.43 crores as per 2001 census and accounts for 8.2% of the total population. 4.26 crores are man and 4.17 crores are women, accounting for 8.01% and 8.40% respectively. The need for empowerment of tribal’s hardly needs justification. Their primitive way of life, economic and social backwardness, low level of literacy, outdated system of production, and demographic quality of tribal areas make the development of tribal’s and tribal areas essential.
Rationale of the research study
India, a welfare state, wedded to the idea of democratic socialism, aims at providing a minimum desirable standard of living to every citizen without any sort of discrimination. In order to meet this avowed objective, the whole developmental process is directed not only towards the advancement of resources, but also towards their equal distribution. Because of distinct way of living patterns of behaviour, customs and tradition, the programmes for their advancement ought to be in consonance with the social realities of their life. With this reason various governmental and nongovernmental organization are being chalked out and implemented for the upliftment of their lot, so that they may join the mainstream of national life. Now days the government made several tribal development programmes through NGO’s, as they are working at the grass root level. And hence the NGO’s are more capable of co-ordinating the participation of local people than the government. This NGO’s are working for the weaker section of the society like women, marginalised farmers, dalits and tribes. Thus NGO’s played a major role in the tribal development especially tribal women empowerment. In such a context it is relevent to study the role and relevance of the NGO in the empowerment process of tribal women in Kerala.
General Objective
To study the role of NGOs in the tribal Women Empowerment of Kerala
Specific Objective
1. To study the socio-economic condition of the respondents.
↚2. To understand the nature of intervention’s of NGO’s for tribal women empowerment.

The tribal population is an integral part of India’s social fabric and has the second largest concentration after that of the African continent. The population of tribal communities scheduled in the Constitution of India and known as Scheduled Tribes was 8.43 crores as per 2001 census and accounts for 8.2% of the total population. 4.26 crores are man and 4.17 crores are women, accounting for 8.01% and 8.40% respectively. The need for empowerment of tribal’s hardly needs justification. Their primitive way of life, economic and social backwardness, low level of literacy, outdated system of production, and demographic quality of tribal areas make the development of tribal’s and tribal areas essential.

3. To assess the impact of intervention’s for the empowerment of tribal women.

The tribal population is an integral part of India’s social fabric and has the second largest concentration after that of the African continent. The population of tribal communities scheduled in the Constitution of India and known as Scheduled Tribes was 8.43 crores as per 2001 census and accounts for 8.2% of the total population. 4.26 crores are man and 4.17 crores are women, accounting for 8.01% and 8.40% respectively. The need for empowerment of tribal’s hardly needs justification. Their primitive way of life, economic and social backwardness, low level of literacy, outdated system of production, and demographic quality of tribal areas make the development of tribal’s and tribal areas essential.


Single
0%

Married
70.45%

Widow
15.91%

Separated
13.64%

Table showing the level of comprehensive priority changes due to NGO’s intervention
Reason
Frequency
Percentage
Social
22
50%
Economic
15
34.09%
Political
7
15.91%
Total
44
100
In the present study, the reseracher focus on mainly three categories of empowerment of women, they are social, economic and political empowerment.  Social empowerment include empowerment of education, health, nutrition, and drinking water and sanitation improvement.  And economic empowerment of women include poverty eradication, micro credit, women and economy women and agricultural development and atlast women and industry.  And political empowerment include political participation of women.  The intervention makes the tribal women either socially, politically or enomically empowered.  The table shows that 50% of the respondent show social changes due to NGOs intervention and 34.09% show’s economic changes and 15.91% shows political changes.
Main Observations are pointed below:
The main objective of the study was to analyse the role of NGOs in tribal women empowerment. Provision for the health care assistance from NGO through women’s SHG’s will positively influence the development partnership of women in the family and then in the community. NGO provides housing facilities to the tribal people so as to uplift their standard of living through the women SHGs. About 68.18% of the tribal women are the members of the income generating programme run by NGO. A major portion of the tribal women are (61.36%) participating in the employment training programme.
The entire respondents are the members of the SHG run by NGO. The small savings in SHG brings self confidence to them. It gives security to them for their children’s education and family welfare. The ‘bank in their court yard’, it became a family friend of them. The awareness programme and the capacity building programme enable them to make a decision in the family and thereby in the society. Women’s participation in power sharing and active participation in decision-making including decision-making in agricultural field and educational and political process at all levels will be ensured for the achievement of goals of empowerment.
↚Recommendations
The intervention provided by the NGO is mainly at three levels- knowledge, attitude and practise. At a knowledge imparting mechanism NGO provide awareness classes and seminars, participatory exercise and so on. NGO also conducts employment training programme and night classes to the tribal SHG members. The members could imbibe new knowledge through these sessions. As a result of this knowledge sessions and income generating training’s, there is a gross change in the attitude of the tribal women. The attitudinal change mainly includes the attitude to self, family and society. The attitude to life has changed and this in turn created a change in their practical life. And as a final outcome, present day witness that their children are getting a better education and better health care and sanitation facilities are being availed. The employment training helped them to come up with new income generation programmes and develop these entrepreneurship skills and make them economically and socially independent.
Conclusion
            The status of women in a society has a significant reflection on the level of social justice in that society. Women’s status is often described in terms of their level of income, employment, education, health and fertility as well as their roles within the family, the community and the society. Tribal women plays a major role in the co-management of their natural, social, economic resources and agricultural development including crop production, livestock production, horticulture and post harvest operation, but they remain backward due to traditional values, illiteracy, superstitions, dominant roles in decision making, social evils and many other cultural factors. And they face problems and challenges in getting a sustainable livelihood and a decent life due to environmental degradation and the interference of outsiders. The strategy for tribal development especially for women needs improvement, betterment, development and upliftment to effect their empowerment. These interventions are the indications of the development of the people, who are living far away from the policy makers and governing body. Thus the role of NGO becomes crucial in tribal women empowerment. 

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